Iphone itunes backup what is backed up

What exactly is included when I backup my iPhone 4 using iTunes?

I have read this question Does an iTunes iOS device backup include everything on the device? but it doesn't seem to be explicit/succinct enough and I can't find a clear list of what exactly is and isn't backed up anywhere that I would trust.

Iphone itunes backup what is backed up

Specifically I am asking which of these things are backed up ( and if there are any others which I am leaving out )

  • Settings inc email settings and and wifi passwords
  • Applications and their settings
  • Photos
  • Videos
  • Songs
  • Notes
  • Reminders
  • Calendar
  • Voice Memos
  • Contacts
  • SMS's
  • Firmware ( which I gather is not backed up )
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I have a feeling that various parts of the backup are stored in various locations so maybe that might be explained, and also I read somewhere that the backup only includes the media items if a sync has been performed so could this be explained. ie do I have to also do a sync to ensure a full backup.

I have an iphone4 and I am backing up to my computer as opposed to iCloud.

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